A voter walks to cast a ballot at a drop box at an early voting polling location for the 2020 Presidential election in Miami, Florida, U.S., on Monday, Oct. 19, 2020. (Photo: Marco Bello/Bloomberg via Getty Images)
Nationwide, nearly 21,000 polling stations have closed since 2016, a VICE News investigation has found.
Over 100 polling places have closed in several key swing states this election cycle thanks to aggressive prosecutions by the Department of Justice over accommodations for people with disabilities.
Since 2016, President Trump’s DOJ has initiated 23 Americans With Disabilities Act (ADA) cases connected to polling-place accessibility since 2016, a big shift in emphasis for the Civil Rights Division under Trump and the two attorneys general who have served in his administration, Jeff Sessions and William Barr.
Passed in 1990, the ADA bans discrimination against people with disabilities in public life, including jobs, schools, transportation, and all public and private buildings open to the public. Until recently, it was rarely enforced on polling places, which are sometimes held in private spaces like churches. In the decade prior to Trump’s election in 2016, the Department of Justice averaged one polling place-focused accessibility case per year, and prior to 2006, there were no recorded ADA settlements involving polling places.
DOJ prosecutions under the ADA often lead to settlement agreements that can mention remedial steps like building ramps or using alternative entrances, and an agreement to ensure polling places are compliant in the future.
While settlement agreements never explicitly called for municipalities to cut polling sites, a majority of the counties investigated by the DOJ in the last four years did so following the litigation, resulting in a total of at least 103 closures.
Disability rights advocates stressed that while making facilities accessible is an important goal, closures are never the desired outcome. “The solution to inaccessible polling places is not to close them; it’s to make them accessible,” said Michelle Bishop, the Voter Access & Engagement Manager at the National Disability Rights Network.
In a normal election year, 103 closures would be a significant drop, but this year they’re a rounding error on the nearly 21,000 polling stations that have been closed in 2020 in the face of the coronavirus pandemic, as revealed in a VICE News investigation published Thursday. From 2012 to 2016, for example, there was a drop of about 3,000 locations nationally.
But in a highly polarized electorate where a few thousand votes in a given state can swing an election, the loss of polling stations in Ohio, Arizona, Virginia, Pennsylvania, and Texas could have an impact on voter turnout.
”I don’t know why anyone would close polling sites, and I don’t know why DOJ would insist that any polling site be closed,” said Eve Hill, the former head of the Disability Rights Section at the Justice Department who left in 2017. There is no language in recent DOJ settlement agreements requiring jurisdictions to close noncompliant polling places, though they do have the power to prevent closures.
The closures also tend to disproportionately impact communities of color, which have fewer resources to make polling stations ADA-compliant. They also impact people who are less likely to own cars, such as voters of color, college students, the elderly, and lower-income voters. Traveling greater distances presents a much larger problem without a readily-accessible vehicle, and research shows that increasing the distance to the nearest polling site makes voters less likely to turn out.
An investigation into Coconino County, Arizona, that finished in 2018 found many ADA violations on Native American tribal land. About a quarter of Coconino’s population is Native American, and while tribal buildings are normally not required to be ADA-compliant, once they become polling places, they fall under the law.
After the DOJ’s action, Coconino County shuttered seven of 61 locations in the time between the 2016 election and the 2018 midterms. In one case, the High Country News reported, the closings required Native American voters to travel 10 miles from their original location to reach the next-nearest voting station. Turnout at several relocated precincts in Coconino fell after the changes.
Investigations in several other counties in Virginia, South Carolina, Pennsylvania, and Texas also resulted in closures. In one case, a majority Black and Latino suburb of Detroit called Ecorse cut its polling places by a third, from six to four.
Prior administrations rarely brought legal action against municipalities for ADA violations at polling sites, and when they did, the action did not lead to closures.
“We never brought any lawsuits or took legal action against any jurisdiction regarding ADA issues and polling places.”
“Between ’73 and ’94, we never brought any lawsuits or took legal action against any jurisdiction regarding ADA issues and polling places,” said Gerry Hebert, who served in the Civil Rights division under several administrations.
Eve Hill, the former head of the Disability Rights Division at the Justice Department who left in 2017, said, “I don’t recall any [litigation] where we would reduce the number of polling places.
“I have a great deal of trust and respect for the [career] staff attorneys at the Disability Rights Section. I really don’t believe that they would be seeking closures of polling places,” Hill said. “But they may not be empowered to oppose it.”
The DOJ has the power to prevent local officials from closing polling places by threatening them with further litigation, but Hill said Trump political appointees may not be allowing attorneys to exercise that leverage.
“When the physical accessibility cases get to the point where the section is negotiating a settlement and the jurisdiction is pushing back, I expect then that the political appointees are getting involved with what the remedy may be and pushing [the Disability Rights section] to let the jurisdiction close polling places rather than fixing them,” Hill said.
The Department of Justice declined to comment.
Weaponizing the ADA
The DOJ’s focus on polling place investigations is even more notable because other Justice Department civil rights enforcement activity is at a two-decade low. That includes the Disability Rights section, where cases fell by about 50 percent from Obama’s term. While the Obama administration pursued systemic cases involving large numbers of people affected by disability rights violations in schools and institutions, these cases have disappeared under Trump.
At the same time the Justice Department’s polling place accessibility litigation has spiked, the Voting Section—tasked potentially with prosecuting voter suppression cases—has been almost completely silent. The section upholds the Voting Rights Act, which is meant to protect voters of color from disenfranchisement, but has not filed a single case under that law in Trump’s term. If that trend holds through January, the last four years will be the first presidential term without a Voting Rights Act case since Congress passed the law in its amended form in 1982.
Polling place reviews are one of the few areas of civil rights litigation during Trump’s term where activity is outpacing, rather than significantly lower than, previous administrations.
Because the DOJ does not often announce ongoing investigations, the completed cases they list on the website are likely a small proportion of all the municipalities they have looked into. “There are probably many more cases that are being pursued,” Hill said.
But even investigations that don’t yield formal settlements can result in polling place closures. After the DOJ launched an investigation into polling place accessibility in 2016 in Hamilton County, a Democratic stronghold in Ohio encompassing the city of Cincinnati, the county closed or relocated at least 10 polling places out of their 360 in the following two years due to ADA violations.
In some cases, the Justice Department may not even need to announce investigations to scare counties into closing polling locations. The National Disability Rights Network noted in a report on ADA accessibility that, after the Justice Department concluded investigations into two counties in South Carolina in 2017 and 2018, other nearby municipalities took notice and made their own changes to polling place accessibility. “I think you’re definitely onto something when you think that it might be a beginning of an effort to intimidate people,” Hebert said.
Closing polling stations
Then there are cases where municipalities use the ADA as an excuse to close polling stations, even when there’s been no investigation or complaint.
In 2018 in Georgia, county administrators proposed closing seven of Randolph County’s nine polling places immediately before the midterm elections, ostensibly on the basis of ADA violations. Further reporting from the Huffington Post revealed that the administrators had never actually performed any review of whether the polling places complied with ADA regulations, proving that the proposed rationale was a front for an attempt at voter suppression.
The ADA has also been employed to justify voter suppression in other counties. While the clearest example of this was in Georgia, an NDRN report catalogued questionable instances of polling place closures where county administrators cited the ADA in Louisiana, Texas, and Mississippi. “Local jurisdictions in various states have gotten away with blaming their polling place closures on the access needs of voters with disabilities. The closures effectively suppress the vote in those jurisdictions and create a national environment of fear among voting rights activists,” the NDRN report noted.“
While the Disability Rights section has focused on polling place accessibility, other important disability rights problems have gone unchallenged, such as absentee or mail voting, which can be a challenge for the disabled.
“The Disability Rights section and the Justice Department really has not been involved in any of the disability discrimination issues that are relevant to this year, which are primarily about absentee voting, which is completely inaccessible to people who are blind,” Hill said. “Their absence from that fight is telling.”
Bishop, of the National Disability Rights Network, said that in many cases it’s much easier to resolve ADA-related issues than to find a new location. Fixes can sometimes be as simple as using orange cones to outline accessible parking spaces or improving signage. In some cases, more extensive work is necessary, such as changing the grade of a parking lot or entrance ramp.
Closing polling locations rather than remedying ADA violations can create significant access issues for disabled voters, even if it is intended to help them.
“Many people with disabilities are unable to drive,” Bishop said, “so moving their nearest polling place further away sometimes imposes a larger burden on them.”
All the products we found to be the best during our testing this year
Throughout the year, CNN Underscored is constantly testing products — be it coffee makers or headphones — to find the absolute best in each respective category.
Our testing process is rigorous, consisting of hours of research (consulting experts, reading editorial reviews and perusing user ratings) to find the top products in each category. Once we settle on a testing pool, we spend weeks — if not months — testing and retesting each product multiple times in real-world settings. All this in an effort to settle on the absolute best products.
So, as we enter peak gifting season, if you’re on the hunt for the perfect gift, we know you’ll find something on this list that they (or you!) will absolutely love.
Beginner baristas and coffee connoisseurs alike will be pleased with the Baratza Virtuoso+, a conical burr grinder with 40 settings for grind size, from super fine (espresso) to super coarse (French press). The best coffee grinder we tested, this sleek look and simple, intuitive controls, including a digital timer, allow for a consistent grind every time — as well as optimal convenience.
Best drip coffee maker: Braun KF6050WH BrewSense Drip Coffee Maker ($79.95; amazon.com)
During our testing of drip coffee makers, we found the Braun KF6050WH BrewSense Drip Coffee Maker made a consistently delicious, hot cup of coffee, brewed efficiently and cleanly, from sleek, relatively compact hardware that is turnkey to operate, and all for a reasonable price.
Best single-serve coffee maker: Breville-Nespresso VertuoPlus ($165; originally $179.95; amazon.com)
Among all single-serve coffee makers we tested, the Breville-Nespresso VertuoPlus, which uses pods that deliver both espresso and “regular” coffee, could simply not be beat for its convenience. Intuitive and a snap to use right out of the box, it looks sleek on the counter, contains a detached 60-ounce water reservoir so you don’t have to refill it with each use and delivers perfectly hot, delicious coffee with a simple tap of a lever and press of a button.
Best coffee subscription: Blue Bottle (starting at $11 per shipment; bluebottlecoffee.com)
Blue Bottle’s coffee subscription won us over with its balance of variety, customizability and, most importantly, taste. We sampled both the single-origin and blend assortments and loved the flavor of nearly every single cup we made. The flavors are complex and bold but unmistakably delicious. Beyond its coffee, Blue Bottle’s subscription is simple and easy to use, with tons of options to tailor to your caffeine needs.
Best cold brewer coffee maker: Hario Mizudashi Cold Brew Coffeepot ($25; amazon.com)
This sleek, sophisticated and streamlined carafe produces 1 liter (about 4 1/4 cups) of rich, robust brew in just eight hours. It was among the simplest to assemble, it executed an exemplary brew in about the shortest time span, and it looked snazzy doing it. Plus, it rang up as the second-most affordable of our inventory.
Best nonstick pan: T-fal E76597 Ultimate Hard Anodized Nonstick Fry Pan With Lid ($39.97; amazon.com)
If you’re a minimalist and prefer to have just a single pan in your kitchen, you’d be set with the T-fal E76597. This pan’s depth gives it multipurpose functionality: It cooks standard frying-pan foods like eggs and meats, and its 2 1/2-inch sides are tall enough to prepare recipes you’d usually reserve for pots, like rices and stews. It’s a high-quality and affordable pan that outperformed some of the more expensive ones in our testing field.
Best blender: Breville Super Q ($499.95; breville.com)
With 1,800 watts of motor power, the Breville Super Q features a slew of preset buttons, comes in multiple colors, includes key accessories and is touted for being quieter than other models. At $500, it does carry a steep price tag, but for those who can’t imagine a smoothie-less morning, what breaks down to about $1.30 a day over a year seems like a bargain.
Best knife set: Chicago Cutlery Fusion 17-Piece Knife Block Set ($119.74; amazon.com)
The Chicago Cutlery Fusion 17-Piece Knife Block Set sets you up to easily take on almost any cutting job and is a heck of a steal at just $119.97. Not only did the core knives included (chef’s, paring, utility and serrated) perform admirably, but the set included a bevy of extras, including a full set of steak knives. We were blown away by their solid construction and reliable execution for such an incredible value. The knives stayed sharp through our multitude of tests, and we were big fans of the cushion-grip handles that kept them from slipping, as well as the classic look of the chestnut-stained wood block. If you’re looking for a complete knife set you’ll be proud of at a price that won’t put a dent in your savings account, this is the clear winner.
Best true wireless earbuds: AirPods Pro ($199, originally $249; amazon.com)
Apple’s AirPods Pro hit all the marks. They deliver a wide soundstage, thanks to on-the-fly equalizing tech that produces playback that seemingly brings you inside the studio with the artist. They have the best noise-canceling ability of all the earbuds we tested, which, aside from stiff-arming distractions, creates a truly immersive experience. To sum it up, you’re getting a comfortable design, a wide soundstage, easy connectivity and long battery life.
Best noise-canceling headphones: Sony WH-1000XM4 ($278, originally $349.99; amazon.com)
Not only do the WH-1000XM4s boast class-leading sound, but phenomenal noise-canceling ability. So much so that they ousted our former top overall pick, the Beats Solo Pros, in terms of ANC quality, as the over-ear XM4s better seal the ear from outside noise. Whether it was a noise from a dryer, loud neighbors down the hall or high-pitched sirens, the XM4s proved impenetrable. This is a feat that other headphones, notably the Solo Pros, could not compete with — which is to be expected considering their $348 price tag.
Best on-ear headphones: Beats Solo 3 ($119.95, originally $199.95; amazon.com)
The Beats Solo 3s are a phenomenal pair of on-ear headphones. Their sound quality was among the top of those we tested, pumping out particularly clear vocals and instrumentals alike. We enjoyed the control scheme too, taking the form of buttons in a circular configuration that blend seamlessly into the left ear cup design. They are also light, comfortable and are no slouch in the looks department — more than you’d expect given their reasonable $199.95 price tag.
The Stila Stay All Day Liquid Lipstick has thousands of 5-star ratings across the internet, and it’s easy to see why. True to its name, this product clings to your lips for hours upon hours, burritos and messy breakfast sandwiches be damned. It’s also surprisingly moisturizing for such a superior stay-put formula, a combo that’s rare to come by.
The Stila Stay All Day Waterproof Liquid Eyeliner is a longtime customer favorite — hence its nearly 7,500 5-star reviews on Sephora — and for good reason. We found it requires little to no effort to create a precise wing, the liner has superior staying power and it didn’t irritate those of us with sensitive skin after full days of wear. As an added bonus, it’s available in a whopping 12 shades.
The Steelcase Series 1 scored among the highest overall, standing out as one of the most customizable, high-quality, comfortable office chairs on the market. At $415, the Steelcase Series 1 beat out most of its pricier competitors across testing categories, scoring less than a single point lower than our highest-rated chair, the $1,036 Steelcase Leap, easily making it the best bang for the buck and a clear winner for our best office chair overall.
Best ergonomic keyboard: Logitech Ergo K860 ($129.99; logitech.com)
We found the Logitech Ergo K860 to be a phenomenally comfortable keyboard. Its build, featuring a split keyboard (meaning there’s a triangular gap down the middle) coupled with a wave-like curvature across the body, allows both your shoulders and hands to rest in a more natural position that eases the tension that can often accompany hours spent in front of a regular keyboard. Add the cozy palm rest along the bottom edge and you’ll find yourself sitting pretty comfortably.
Best ergonomic mouse: Logitech MX Master 3 ($99.99; logitech.com)
The Logitech MX Master 3 is an unequivocally comfortable mouse. It’s shaped to perfection, with special attention to the fingers that do the clicking. Using it felt like our fingers were lounging — with a sculpted ergonomic groove for nearly every finger.
Best ring light: Emart 10-Inch Selfie Ring Light ($25.99; amazon.com)
The Emart 10-Inch Standing Ring Light comes with a tripod that’s fully adjustable — from 19 inches to 50 inches — making it a great option whether you’re setting it atop your desk for video calls or need some overhead lighting so no weird shadows creep into your photos. Its three light modes (warm, cool and a nice mix of the two), along with 11 brightness levels (among the most settings on any of the lights we tested), ensure you’re always framed in the right light. And at a relatively cheap $35.40, this light combines usability and affordability better than any of the other options we tested.
Best linen sheets: Parachute Linen Sheet Set (starting at $149; parachute.com)
Well made, luxurious to the touch and with the most versatile shopping options (six sizes, nine colors and the ability to order individual sheets), the linen sheets from Parachute were, by a narrow margin, our favorite set. From the satisfying unboxing to a sumptuous sleep, with a la carte availability, Parachute set the gold standard in linen luxury.
Best shower head: Kohler Forte Shower Head (starting at $74.44; amazon.com)
Hands down, the Kohler Forte Shower Head provides the best overall shower experience, offering three distinct settings. Backstory: Lots of shower heads out there feature myriad “settings” that, when tested, are pretty much indecipherable. The Forte’s three sprays, however, are each incredibly different and equally successful. There’s the drenching, full-coverage rain shower, the pulsating massage and the “silk spray” setting that is basically a super-dense mist. The Forte manages to achieve all of this while using only 1.75 gallons per minute (GPM), making it a great option for those looking to conserve water.
Best humidifier: TaoTronics Cool Mist Humidifier (starting at $49.99; amazon.com)
The TaoTronics Cool Mist Humidifier ramped up the humidity in a room in about an hour, which was quicker than most of the options we tested. More importantly, though, it sustained those humidity levels over the longest period of time — 24 hours, to be exact. The levels were easy to check with the built-in reader (and we cross-checked that reading with an external reader to confirm accuracy). We also loved how easy this humidifier was to clean, and the nighttime mode for the LED reader eliminated any bright lights in the bedroom.
Best TV: TCL 6-Series (starting at $579.99; bestbuy.com)
With models starting at $599.99 for a 55-inch, the TCL 6-Series might give you reverse sticker shock considering everything you get for that relatively small price tag. But can a 4K smart TV with so many specification standards really deliver a good picture for $500? The short answer: a resounding yes. The TCL 6-Series produces a vibrant picture with flexible customization options and handles both HDR and Dolby Vision, optimization standards that improve the content you’re watching by adding depth to details and expanding the color spectrum.
Best streaming device: Roku Ultra ($99.99; amazon.com)
Roku recently updated its Ultra streaming box and the 2020 version is faster, thanks to a new quad-core processor. The newest Ultra retains all of the features we loved and enjoyed about the 2019 model, like almost zero lag time between waking it up and streaming content, leading to a hiccup-free streaming experience. On top of that, the Roku Ultra can upscale content to deliver the best picture possible on your TV — even on older-model TVs that don’t offer the latest and greatest picture quality — and supports everything from HD to 4K.
Best carry-on luggage: Away Carry-On ($225; away.com)
The Away Carry-On scored high marks across all our tests and has the best combination of features for the average traveler. Compared with higher-end brands like Rimowa, which retail for hundreds more, you’re getting the same durable materials, an excellent internal compression system and eye-catching style. Add in smart charging capabilities and a lifetime warranty, and this was the bag to beat.
Best portable charger: Anker PowerCore 13000 (starting at $31.99; amazon.com)
The Anker PowerCore 13000 shone most was in terms of charging capacity. It boasts 13,000 mAh (maH is a measure of how much power a device puts out over time), which is enough to fully charge an iPhone 11 two and a half times. Plus, it has two fast-charging USB Type-A ports so you can juice a pair of devices simultaneously. While not at the peak in terms of charging capacity, at just $31.99, it’s a serious bargain for so many mAhs.
Trump’s misleading tweet about changing your vote, briefly explained
Searches for changing one’s vote did not trend following the recent presidential debate, and just a few states appear to have processes for changing an early vote. But that didn’t stop President Trump from wrongly saying otherwise on Tuesday.
In early morning posts, the president falsely claimed on Twitter and Facebook that many people had Googled “Can I change my vote?” after the second presidential debate and said those searching wanted to change their vote over to him. Trump also wrongly claimed that most states have a mechanism for changing one’s vote. Actually, just a few states appear to have the ability, and it’s rarely used.
Trump’s claim about what was trending on Google after the debate doesn’t hold up. Searches for changing one’s vote were not among Google’s top trending searches for the day of the debate (October 22) or the day after. Searches for “Can I change my vote?” did increase slightly around the time of the debate, but there is no way to know whether the bump was related to the debate or whether the people searching were doing so in support of Trump.
It was only after Trump’s posts that searches about changing your vote spiked significantly. It’s worth noting that people were also searching for “Can I change my vote?” during a similar period before the 2016 presidential election.
Google declined to comment on the accuracy of Trump’s post.
Trump also claimed that these results indicate that most of the people who were searching for how to change their vote support him. But the Google Trends tool for the searches he mentioned does not provide that specific information.
Perhaps the most egregiously false claim in Trump’s recent posts is about “most states” having processes for changing your early vote. In fact, only a few states have such processes, and they can come with certain conditions. For instance, in Michigan, voters who vote absentee can ask for a new ballot by mail or in person until the day before the election.
The Center for Election Innovation’s David Becker told the Associated Press that changing one’s vote is “extremely rare.” Becker explained, “It’s hard enough to get people to vote once — it’s highly unlikely anybody will go through this process twice.”
At the time of publication, Trump’s false claims had drawn about 84,000 and 187,000 “Likes” on Twitter and Facebook, respectively. Trump’s posts accelerated searches about changing your vote in places like the swing state of Florida, where changing one’s vote after casting it is not possible. Those numbers are a reminder of the president’s capacity to spread misinformation quickly.
On Facebook, the president’s post came with a label directing people to Facebook’s Voting Information Center, but no fact-checking label. Twitter had no annotation on the president’s post. Neither company responded to a request for comment.
That Trump is willing to spread misinformation to benefit himself and his campaign isn’t a surprise. He does that a lot. Still, just days before a presidential election in which millions have already voted, this latest episode demonstrates that the president has no qualms about using false claims about voting to cause confusion and sow doubt in the electoral process.
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Nearly 6,000 civilian casualties in Afghanistan so far this year
From January to September, 5,939 civilians – 2,117 people killed and 3,822 wounded – were casualties of the fighting, the UN says.
Nearly 6,000 Afghan civilians were killed or wounded in the first nine months of the year as heavy fighting between government forces and Taliban fighters rages on despite efforts to find peace, the United Nations has said.
From January to September, there were 5,939 civilian casualties in the fighting – 2,117 people killed and 3,822 wounded, the UN Assistance Mission in Afghanistan (UNAMA) said in a quarterly report on Tuesday.
“High levels of violence continue with a devastating impact on civilians, with Afghanistan remaining among the deadliest places in the world to be a civilian,” the report said.
Civilian casualties were 30 percent lower than in the same period last year but UNAMA said violence has failed to slow since the beginning of talks between government negotiators and the Taliban that began in Qatar’s capital, Doha, last month.
The Taliban was responsible for 45 percent of civilian casualties while government troops caused 23 percent, it said. United States-led international forces were responsible for two percent.
Most of the remainder occurred in crossfire, or were caused by ISIL (ISIS) or “undetermined” anti-government or pro-government elements, according to the report.
Ground fighting caused the most casualties followed by suicide and roadside bomb attacks, targeted killings by the Taliban and air raids by Afghan troops, the UN mission said.
Fighting has sharply increased in several parts of the country in recent weeks as government negotiators and the Taliban have failed to make progress in the peace talks.
The Taliban has been fighting the Afghan government since it was toppled from power in a US-led invasion in 2001.
Washington blamed the then-Taliban rulers for harbouring al-Qaeda leaders, including Osama bin Laden. Al-Qaeda was accused of plotting the 9/11 attacks.
Calls for urgent reduction of violence
Meanwhile, the US envoy for Afghanistan, Zalmay Khalilzad, said on Tuesday that the level of violence in the country was still too high and the Kabul government and Taliban fighters must work harder towards forging a ceasefire at the Doha talks.
Khalilzad made the comments before heading to the Qatari capital to hold meetings with the two sides.
“I return to the region disappointed that despite commitments to lower violence, it has not happened. The window to achieve a political settlement will not stay open forever,” he said in a tweet.
There needs to be “an agreement on a reduction of violence leading to a permanent and comprehensive ceasefire”, added Khalilzad.
1/4 I return to the region disappointed that despite commitments to lower violence, it has not happened. The window to achieve a political settlement will not stay open forever. https://t.co/hVl4b032W6
— U.S. Special Representative Zalmay Khalilzad (@US4AfghanPeace) October 27, 2020
A deal in February between the US and the Taliban paved the way for foreign forces to leave Afghanistan by May 2021 in exchange for counterterrorism guarantees from the Taliban, which agreed to sit with the Afghan government to negotiate a permanent ceasefire and a power-sharing formula.
But progress at the intra-Afghan talks has been slow since their start in mid-September and diplomats and officials have warned that rising violence back home is sapping trust.
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